Leading edge ice protection for aerodynamic surfaces is provided by laser-drilled titanium panels. The active area of the skin is perforated by laser drilling holes 0.0025 inches in diameter with 800 holes per square inch. The porous area of the titanium panels is designed to provide ice protection over the entire range of normal operation.
Typically, the system is designed with the capability to provide freezing point depression over the FAA Continuous Maximum Icing envelope for the protected surfaces. This approach provides an anti-icing capability for all flight conditions within the envelope at the design flow. It is also capable of providing de-ice capability during and after encounters with ice defined by the Intermittent Maximum envelope. A combination of impingement analysis and flow rate analysis is performed to determine the amount of fluid needed to be provided at the leading edge to provide this capability.